By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

ISBN-10: 9646117570

ISBN-13: 9789646117570

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Vowel), (c) whether the airstream passes through the nasal cavity in addition to the oral cavity (nasal vs. oral), and (d) whether the airstream passes through the middle of the oral cavity or along the side(s) (non-lateral vs. lateral). An example of this can be found by looking at the following words: nine /naɪn/ dine /daɪn/ line /laɪn/ They all begin with voiced, alveolar consonants /n/, /d/, and /l/. Yet, they are all clearly different in both sound and meaning. The kinds of constriction made by the articulators are what make up this further dimension of classification.

With the tongue tip resting against the lower teeth, the back of the tongue makes contact with the soft palate. But as the soft palate is lowered (to allow air to flow through the nasal cavity), the tongue's movement is more important for the nasal than for the oral sound. 6. AFFRICATE An affricate is a plosive immediately followed by a fricative in the same place of articulation. The /ʧ/ in chap /ʧæp/ and the /ʤ/ in jeep /ʤi:p/ are the two clear affricates in English. If you think about it, the /ʧ/ sound is made up from the plosive /t/ and 44 CHAPTER THREE the fricative /ʃ/ sounds.

3. ALVEOLAR RIDGE An alveolar sound is produced when the tongue tip, or blade, touches the bony prominence behind the top teeth. This prominence is in fact that part of the gum which lies behind the upper teeth. In English, the following phonemes are alveolar: /t/ as in tin /tɪn/, /d/ as in din /dɪn/, /s/ as in sin /sɪn/, /z/ as in zip /zɪp/, /l/ as in look /lʊk/, /r/ as in roof /ru:f/, and /n/ as in /night /naɪt/. Try saying all of these phonemes to yourself. They do not all touch in exactly the same way due to the manner of articulation.

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An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan

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