By Inger P. Davis

ISBN-10: 9400949847

ISBN-13: 9789400949843

ISBN-10: 9401087067

ISBN-13: 9789401087063

This ebook bargains with methods of supporting households deal with the trouble of rais­ ing teenagers. specialist social employees - in addition to different human ser­ vice pros - stumble upon those households in different settings: baby welfare and family members provider corporations, hospitals, colleges, group psychological healthiness clinics, residential therapy facilities, juvenile halls and detention facilities, leisure and vocational education organisations, and so on. whereas households from all walks of existence can be present in those settings, households who've suffered the extra stresses of poverty, discrimination, and the implications of actual and psychological ailment are quite often overrepresented. Even lower than the simplest of conditions, the adolescent years usually positioned the most powerful family members buildings to the try - occasionally to the brink. a contemporary nationwide learn of over a thousand standard, middle-income, ­ mother or father households reviewed the strengths, stresses, and satisfactions of the kinfolk lifestyles cycle (Olson and McCubbin 1983). As many could count on, households with children have been came upon to adventure extra rigidity and decrease degrees of family members adaptability, harmony, and marital and kinfolk pride than the other developmental level. The households with kids who fared top have been people with such marital assets nearly as good verbal exchange and clash answer abilities, pleasing sexual relatives, and sturdy parent-adolescent communication.

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Isolation. Without a fairly strong sense of identity, no true engagement in friendship or enduring sexual relations can take place, and the search for such relations becomes "desperate attempts HISTORY, FACTS, AND THEORIES 31 at delineating the fuzzy lines of identity by mutual narcissistic mirroring: to fall in love then often means to fall into one's mirror image, hurting oneself and damaging the mirror" (1975, p. 320). An extreme case of identity diffusion is the choice of a negative identity that perversely unfolds from past identifications and roles that have been presented to the child as most undesirable and dangerous but also most true and real.

Several behavioral interventions appear particularly helpful to adolescents, but it is probably correct to say that they are often ignored by many human service professionals. Adverse reactions to Watson's experimentation with Little Albert (Achenbach 1982, pp. 317-18) and other early stimulus-response experiments have proven hard to extinguish. They linger on but do not seem to fit most present-day behavioral theories and practices. As far as adolescent development is concerned, behavioral theories have little to offer for obvious and intrinsic reasons.

Ld is now able to differentiate self from mother, from whose physical presence the child gains relative independence through internalization of the mother, referred to as object representation or imago (Bios 1979, pp 483-84). Similarly, during adolescence the youngster, by relinquishing dependence on the internalized, infantile parental objects, emerges as an independent member of the adult world. For this internal, second individuation process to take place, it is necessary and normal for the adolescent to regress to the preoedipal autonomy struggle between parent and child and to rework once more the oedipal conflict reawakened by the upsurge of sexual drive.

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Adolescents: Theoretical and Helping Perspectives by Inger P. Davis


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