By Brousseau, Anne-Marie; Lefebvre, Claire

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In order to make this low tone pronounceable, the epenthetic vowel /i/ is added. Notes 33 18. 19. Da Cruz—Avolonto (1993) do not take tonal specification into account since, according to their data, the tone on the syllable of the verb has no influence on the derived phonetic realisation. In the course of field work with various informants, both in Benin and in Montreal, I collected the differing data shown in (34). Identity of tones between the two syllables is required for the reduction to apply.

In the first case, they are identified as such. Data cited from articles (including our own work) are identified by the number of the example in the original source (provided they have a number in the original), the author's name and the date of publication. Data cited from books (including our own work) or dissertations or theses are identified in a similar fashion; in this case, however, reference to the page number is also given. Unidentified data in the text are to be understood as being cited directly from the two authors' respective field notes.

The mood marker ni 'may/must/should', the preposition nu 'for* and the verb φ 'to say' may also serve as complementisers. Fongbe has an overt nominal operator occurring in relative and factive clauses, a rare phenomenon among the languages of the world. There are two markers used to negate in the language: one is a marker of negation; the other is a negative marker which belongs in one of the two paradigms of markers expressing the point of view of the speaker on the proposition. Finally, the lexical item w£ 'it is' has various functions in the structure of the clause.

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A Grammar of Fongbe by Brousseau, Anne-Marie; Lefebvre, Claire

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